How to Use this Manual
The school department operates according to policies established by the school committee. The committee then appraises the effects of its policies and makes revisions as necessary.
In the interests of harmony, efficiency, uniformity of interpretation, coordination of effort, and in fairness to all concerned, the committee makes this manual available to all who are affected by its policies.
Please Note: All copies of this manual are the property of the Lynn Public School System.
About Policies and Regulations
Generally, the role of a School Committee is to set policy and the role of the administration is to implement it through regulations. Written policies are the chief means by which a School
Committee governs the schools, and regulations are one of the means by which the committee's
policies are implemented. The following definitions provide a distinction between these two types of statements:
POLICIES are principles adopted by the School Committee to chart a course of action. They are broad enough to indicate a line of action to be taken by the administration in meeting a number of day to day problems while being narrow enough to give the administration clear guidance.
REGULATIONS are detailed directions usually developed by the administration to put policy into practice.
These definitions are serviceable some of the time. They reflect sound theory of governance and administration. But policies and regulations are obviously closely related. They can and do merge, making it difficult to ascertain where one begins and the other ends. For example:
* State and federal governments require school committees to make or officially approve detailed regulations, and procedures in certain areas.
* A School Committee signs contracts and agreements which may contain and interweave policies, regulations, and procedural detail.
* The public staff, or school committee members may demand that the School Committee itself, not the administration, establish specific regulations and procedures in certain sensitive areas.
It is the intermingling of policy and regulation in law, in contracts, and in adopted statements of the School Committee that can cause confusion. Sometimes they are not easily separated. Therefore, the separation of policies and regulations in this manual follows several "rules of thumb" in addition to basic theory:
1. When the school system's practice in a particular area is established by law, any informational statement covering the practice is presented as "policy" and is printed on a white page. (A law may, of course, be quoted or referred to in a regulation.)
2. When a school system's practice in a particular area has been established through a negotiated agreement, any statement pertaining to that practice is presented as "policy".
3. Where the School Committee has interwoven regulations with policy and where separation would interfere with their meaning, the entire statement is presented as a policy.
4. Where the School Committee has adopted rules and by-laws concerning its own organizational and operating procedures, these statements appear as policy. As long as the administration operates within the guidelines of policy adopted by the committee, it may issue regulations without prior committee approval, unless committee action is required by law, or unless the committee has specifically asked that certain types of regulations be submitted for committee approval. The School Committee is to be informed of all school system regulations issued by the administration. All such regulations are subject to committee review.
Order of Precedence
School committee policies and regulations, as well as negotiated agreements with staff bar- gaining units, must be read and interpreted in the light of the Massachusetts General Laws and State regulations. Wherever inconsistencies of interpretation arise, the law and state regulations prevail. A conflict between a local policy or regulation and a negotiated agreement must be interpreted in line with the contract for members of the particular bargaining unit.
The masculine, feminine and neuter genders as used in this manual import one another, and the singular shall include the plural whenever applicable.
How to Find a Policy
To find a policy (or regulation) in this policy manual:
Consider where the policy statement (or regulation) would be filed among the 12 major classifications. Turn to the Table of Contents/Index for that section and glance down the listing until you find the term that most closely fits the topic you are seeking. Use the code letters given for that term to locate the policy you need. The pages are arranged in alphabetical order by code within the section. All pages are coded in their upper right hand corner.
What if you can't find the term you are seeking? The code finder index lists more than 1,800 terms, but no index of useful size could include every possibility. If the term you are seeking is not included, look up a synonym or a more general or specific term appropriate to the topic.
What if you can find the term and code, but there is no policy or regulation? This probably means that the school system has no written policy or important regulations in that particular area. All terms used in the classification system appear in the sectional tables of contents and Code Finder Index to accommodate the coding, insertion, and finding of policies or regulations that may be issued later. But there is one other possibility. A brief statement related to the policy you are seeking may be incorporated in a "superior" policy, which covers the area generally. This "superior" policy will be coded under a more general term. To find it, read up the classification system. For example, a policy statement which relates to all meetings of the school committee might be filed under "School Board Meetings" (BD) rather than "Regular Board Meetings" (BDA). (Please note: In the classification system and Code Finder Index, read "School Committee" for "School Board".)
Using the Signs and Symbols
Various signs and symbols are used in connection with the classification system. They are for your use in locating and/or in examining policies. Included are the following:
Also: Certain policies bear two codes in the upper right hand corner. The second is in parentheses and is preceded by 'Also'. This means that the identical policy (or regulation) is filed under both codes.
-R | Regulation. This symbol following a code indicates that the statement is a regulation, not a committee policy. The statement appears on a yellow, rather than a white, sheet.
-E | Exhibit. This symbol following a code indicates that the statement is a reference document such as a calendar, application form, etc., rather than a policy. Such statements are printed on green paper.
DATES: Where possible, the original date of adoption/issuance appears immediately following each policy or regulation. In other instances, an approximate adoption or re-approval date is used.
LEGAL REFERENCES: Pertinent legal references are given to inform the reader where in state law s/he may find the statutes which relate to a specific policy. Unless otherwise noted, all references direct the reader to the General Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (cited as M.G.L., Chapter and section).
CONTRACT REFERENCES: Agreements reached through negotiations with recognized staff organizations have the full force of committee policy. References to negotiated agreements are provided, as appropriate, to direct the reader to statements in these agreements.
CROSS REFERENCES: Certain policies and regulations relate to others. Cross references are provided following many statements to help the reader find all of the related information s/he needs.
Is the Manual Complete?
No. The manual contains all of the current written policies of the school committee to date. But, the need for putting additional policies in writing, for adopting new or revising existing ones, becomes apparent.
Additionally, state laws; and regulations change. No matter how well conceived and well-developed, a policy manual can never be 100% complete and 100% up-to-date. Policy development is a continuing process. From time to time, new policies, regulations, and reference documents will be developed, coded under the classification system, and issued for insertion in the manual.
Should the need arise, supplemental subcodes may be added to the classification system to accommodate topics not covered by existing codes. For example, IGA is the code for BASIC INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM. The Code Finder Index lists various programs from IGAA, CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION to IGAJ, DRIVER EDUCATION.
What is Policy? [Top]
Board policies are statements which set forth the purposes and prescribe in general terms the organization and program of a school system. They create a framework within which the college president or superintendent and his/her staff can discharge their assigned duties with positive direction. They tell what is wanted.
- A guideline adopted by the board to chart a course of action
- What is wanted or not wanted
- May also include "why" and "how much"
- Broad enough to allow administrative discretion/specific enough to give clear guidance
Policy is not:
- Detailed direction
- Restatements or paraphrases of state or federal law
- Forms, job descriptions, etc.
Why is Policy Important? [Top]
- Provides consistency, stability and continuity
- Conserves time and effort, freeing the board from routine action
- Provides direction for the college president, superintendent, staff and students
- Informs the public
- Establishes a legal record as well as a legal basis for Board actions
- Aids orientation of new board members and staff
- Provides a sound basis for appraisal and accountability
- Meets minimum requirements as prescribed by state and federal law
What is an Administrative Regulation? [Top]
Administrative regulations are detailed directions developed by the college president or superintendent to put policy into practice. They tell how, by whom, where and when things are to be done.
An administrative regulation:
- Provides the details for carrying out policy and enforcing it
- Sets forth specific requirements
- May list do's and don'ts
- May include step by step procedures
- May assign specific responsibility
Why is an Administrative Regulation Important? [Top]
An administrative regulation:
- Assigns detail needed to implement policy to staff, allowing the Board to focus on broad issues
- Provides college president or superintendent the flexibility to make timely changes to effectively implement policy
- Provides detailed requirements, procedures and prohibitions under which the district will be operated
- May satisfy a state or federal requirement or serve as a compliance indicator
- Informs staff, students and public
How to Tell the Difference Between a Policy and an Administrative Regulation [Top]
Each policy/AR in the manual is designated with a code (located in the upper-right corner of the first page of the document or in the "code" column on each table of contents). An administrative regulation is coded with an "-AR" at the end of the policy "code." For example:
||is a Policy
||is an Administrative Regulation
How to Find a Policy/AR in this Manual [Top]
To find a policy/AR in the manual: Browse the Table of Contents in each section.
Browse the Table of Contents
Consider where the statement may be filed among the policy sections. Click on one of the policy sections in the list at the left (or select one of the sections from the Navigation Menu at the top of each page) and you will be taken to the Table of Contents page for that section. All policies within that section will be listed on the Table of Contents. Once you have determined which policy you want to see click on the desired policy title or code to view that policy. Remember, all policies in this manual are provided in Adobe PDF format and you must have the free Acrobat® Reader installed.
When I Click on a Policy Nothing Happens or I Get an Error [Top]
All policy documents on this Web site are provided in Adobe's® Portable Document Format (PDF). To display or print these documents, you must have the free Adobe Acrobat® Reader installed on your computer. The Acrobat® Reader allows you to view, navigate, and print PDF documents.